1) Fluoride's ability to damage the brain represents one of the most active areas of research on fluoride toxicity today. 2) The research on fluoride and the brain has been fueled by 18 human studies
from China, India, Iran, and Mexico finding elevated levels of fluoride exposure to be associated with IQ deficits
in children. Fluoride's impact on IQ is exacerbated among children with low-iodine
3) The impact of fluoride on children's IQ
has been documented even after controlling for children's lead exposure, iodine exposure, parental education and income status, and other known factors that might impact the results (Rocha-Amador 2007; Xiang 2003 a,b).
4) In addition to IQ studies, 3 studies (Yu 1996; Du 1992; Han 1989) have found that fluoride accumulates in the brain of the fetus
, causing damage to cells and neurotransmitters and 1 study (Li 2004) has found a correlation between exposure to fluoride during fetal development and behavioral deficits among neonates
5) Several recent studies have found that even adult exposures
to fluoride may result in central nervous system disturbances, particularly among industrial workers.
5) The findings of neurological effects in fluoride-exposed humans is consistent with, and strengthened by, recent findings from over 40 animal studies
published since 1992. As with the studies on humans, the studies on animals have reported an impairment in learning and memory
prorcesses among the fluoride-treated groups.
6) The animal studies have also documented considerable evidence of direct toxic effects of fluoride on brain
tissue, even at levels as low as 1 ppm fluoride in water (Varner 1998
). These effects include:
-- reduction in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors;
-- reduction in lipid content;
-- impaired anti-oxidant defense systems;
-- damage to the hippocampus;
-- damage to the purkinje cells;
-- increased uptake of aluminum;
-- formation of beta-amyloid plaques (the classic brain abnormality in Alzheimer's disease);
-- exacerbation of lesions induced by iodine deficiency; and
-- accumulation of fluoride in the pineal gland